In response to COVID-19 and the recent school announcements, the Vision and Hearing Screening Program events have been temporarily moved out of the schools.
We are still here to serve you and your children. Please call us at 804-545-0294 to learn more or schedule a screening event.

Advice for Parents

Child Development

As a parent, you are your child’s first teacher. You have the power to provide the best start possible for them by identifying red flags in your child’s development. Being familiar with developmental warning signs helps you act quickly if your child needs early intervention.

It is time to speak to your child’s physician if your 3 year old child:

  • Falls down a lot or has trouble with stairs
  • Drools or has very unclear speech
  • Can’t work simple toys (such as peg boards, simple puzzles, turning handle)
  • Doesn’t speak in sentences
  • Doesn’t understand simple instructions
  • Doesn’t play pretend or make-believe
  • Doesn’t want to play with other children or with toys
  • Doesn’t make eye contact
  • Loses skills he once had

It is time to speak to your child’s physician if your 4 year old child:

  • Can’t jump in place
  • Has trouble scribbling
  • Shows no interest in interactive games or make-believe
  • Ignores other children or doesn’t respond to people outside the family
  • Resists dressing, sleeping, and using the toilet
  • Can’t retell a favorite story
  • Doesn’t follow 3-part commands
  • Doesn’t understand “same” and “different”
  • Doesn’t use “me” and “you” correctly
  • Speaks unclearly
  • Loses skills he once had

It is time to speak to your child’s physician if your 5 year old child:

  • Doesn’t show a wide range of emotions
  • Shows extreme behavior (unusually fearful, aggressive, shy or sad)
  • Unusually withdrawn and not active
  • Is easily distracted, has trouble focusing on one activity for more than 5 minutes
  • Doesn’t respond to people, or responds only superficially
  • Can’t tell what’s real and what’s make-believe
  • Doesn’t play a variety of games and activities
  • Can’t give first and last name
  • Doesn’t use plurals or past tense properly
  • Doesn’t talk about daily activities or experiences
  • Doesn’t draw pictures
  • Can’t brush teeth, wash and dry hands, or get undressed without help
  • Loses skills he once had

Vision Milestones

  • Poor eyesight
  • Infant will blink in response to bright light or touching eye
  • Eyes are sometimes uncoordinated, may look crossed-eyed
  • Able to stare at object if held 8 to 10 inches away
  • Initially fixes eyes on a face or light then begins to follow a moving object
1 month
  • Looks at faces and pictures with contrasting black and white images
  • Can follow an object up to 90 degrees
  • Watches parent closely
  • Tears begin to work
2 to 3 months
  • Begins to be able to see an object as one image
  • Looks at hands
  • Follows light, faces, and objects
4 to 5 months
  • Beginning to reach hands to objects, may bat at hanging object with hands
  • Can stare at block
  • Recognizes bottle
  • Will look at self in mirror
  • Will look at own hand
5 to 7 months
  • Has full color vision, able to see at longer distances
  • Can pick up a toy that is dropped
  • Will turn head to see an object
  • Likes certain colors
  • Will touch image of self in mirror
7 to 12 months
  • Can stare at small objects
  • Begins to have depth perception
  • Plays peek-a-boo
  • Can watch objects that are moving fast
12 to 14 months
  • Able to place shapes in proper holes
  • Becomes interested in pictures
  • Recognizes familiar objects and pictures in books, may point to some objects when asked, "Where is the ...?"
  • Points and gestures for objects and actions
  • Recognizes own face in mirror
18 to 24 months
  • Able to focus on objects near and far
  • Scribbles with crayon or pencil, may imitate drawing straight line or circle
  • Can point to body parts (nose, hair, and eyes) when asked
36 to 38 months
  • Can copy shapes
  • Vision is nearing 20/20
  • Names colors
4 to 6 years
  • Recognizes and recites the alphabet
  • Ready to begin reading
  • Has complete depth perception
  • Uses scissors
  • Can name coins and money

Hearing Milestones

Birth to 3 months
  • Reacts to loud sounds
  • Calms down or smiles when spoken to
  • Recognizes your voice and calms down if crying
  • When feeding, starts or stops sucking in response to sound
  • Coos and makes pleasure sounds
  • Has a special way of crying for different needs
  • Smiles when he or she sees you
4 to 6 months
  • Follows sounds with his or her eyes
  • Responds to changes in the tone of your voice
  • Notices toys that make sounds
  • Pays attention to music
  • Babbles in a speech-like way and uses many different sounds, including sounds that begin with p, b, and m
  • Laughs
  • Babbles when excited or unhappy
  • Makes gurgling sounds when alone or playing with you
7 months to 1 year
  • Enjoys playing peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake
  • Turns and looks in the direction of sounds
  • Listens when spoken to
  • Understands words for common items such as “cup,” “shoe,” or “juice”
  • Responds to requests (“Come here”)
  • Babbles using long and short groups of sounds (“tata, upup, bibibi”)
  • Babbles to get and keep attention
  • Communicates using gestures such as waving or holding up arms
  • Imitates different speech sounds
  • Has one or two words (“Hi,” “dog,” “Dada,” or “Mama”) by first birthday
1 to 2 years
  • Knows a few parts of the body and can point to them when asked
  • Follows simple commands (“Roll the ball”) and understands simple questions (“Where’s your shoe?”)
  • Enjoys simple stories, songs, and rhymes
  • Points to pictures, when named, in books
  • Acquires new words on a regular basis
  • Uses some one- or two-word questions (“Where kitty?” or “Go bye-bye?”)
  • Puts two words together (“More cookie”)
  • Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words
2 to 3 years
  • Has a word for almost everything
  • Uses two- or three-word phrases to talk about and ask for things
  • Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n sounds
  • Speaks in a way that is understood by family members and friends
  • Names objects to ask for them or to direct attention to them
3 to 4 years
  • Hears you when you call from another room
  • Hears the television or radio at the same sound level as other
  • family members
  • Answers simple “Who?” “What?” “Where?” and “Why?” questions
  • Talks about activities at daycare, preschool, or friends’ homes
  • Uses sentences with four or more words
  • Speaks easily without having to repeat syllables or words
4 to 5 years
  • Pays attention to a short story and answers simple questions about it
  • Hears and understands most of what is said at home and in school
  • Uses sentences that give many details
  • Tells stories that stay on topic
  • Communicates easily with other children and adults
  • Says most sounds correctly except for a few (l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, and th)
  • Uses rhyming words
  • Names some letters and numbers
  • Uses adult grammar                         




8700 Stony Point Parkway, Suite 100, Richmond, VA


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